English Grammar Tutorials

  • Preface & Content
  • Letter, Word, Sentence
  • Parts of speech
  • Pronoun
  • Adjective
  • Adverb
  • Articles
  • Number and Gender
  • Person and Case
  • Mood and Modal verbs
  • Tense
  • Clause
  • Voice
  • Narration
  • Punctuation
  • Preposition
  • Conjunction
  • Participles and Gerunds
  • Transformation of sentences
  • Phrasal verb
  • Exercise
  • Correction
  • Simple Conjugate
  • Chapter 13. Narration


    13.1 Introduction

    Mother said to me ,"I am here". In this example "I am here" is the speech of the mother and is under quoted marks. So it is direct narration. Here the actual words are quoted without any change. But when the same idea is conveyed to the other in this way, i.e. Mother told me that she was there; it is indirect narration. Here the saying of the mother is reported not in her actual words; but in a changed form though the idea or saying or sense has been kept unchanged. So it is indirect narration.

    13.2 Rules for narration change

    There are some rules of changing narration from direct to indirect or vice versa. Now, we are to go into the rules. Here, you see that the rules in Table 13.1 to 13.3 (page 2, 3) have been arranged to make it easy. But before going into the table or chart we are to know some terms in this regard. For example, consider the following sentence. The teacher said to me, "I am here". Here "said" is a reporting verb, as it reports the saying quoted above. "I am here" is reported speech, as this is reported. "Am" is the verb in the reported speech. First of all we are here to identify the class of the sentence in the reported speech and according to the class of the sentence, the rules laid down in the Tables 13.1 to 13.3 (page 2, 3) to be followed to change the speech from direct to indirect.

    Rules to change the narration (direct to indirect speech) are summarized in Table 13.1 to 13.4 (page 2, 3). Students are requested to follow the tables and accordingly change the narration. They should also keep in mind that, any question mark or exclamatory mark in direct speech should be removed while converting toindirect speech. By this statement we mean to say that all sentences in thereporting speech must be in the form of assertive sentence i.e. subject + verb + object.

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