English Grammar Tutorials

  • Preface & Content
  • Letter, Word, Sentence
  • Parts of speech
  • Pronoun
  • Adjective
  • Adverb
  • Articles
  • Number and Gender
  • Person and Case
  • Mood and Modal verbs
  • Tense
  • Clause
  • Voice
  • Narration
  • Punctuation
  • Preposition
  • Conjunction
  • Participles and Gerunds
  • Transformation of sentences
  • Phrasal verb
  • Exercise
  • Correction
  • Simple Conjugate
  • Chapter 17. Participles and Gerunds


    17.1 Participles

    When the verbs participate in the function of a verb as well as an adjective, they are called participles.
    “A rolling stone gathers no moss”.
    Our teacher is a learned man.

    Here ‘rolling’ comes from the verb roll with ing and ‘learned’ is the past participle form of the verb learn. Both of them are participles.

    There are two forms of participles:

    (i) the present or imperfect participle formed by adding ‘ing’ to the verb. For example: leading, learning, swimming, singing etc.

    (ii) The past or perfect participle formed by adding ‘d’, ‘ed’, ‘t’, ‘n’, ‘en’. For example: learned, burnt, known, broken, proved, etc.

    17.1.1 Use of participles

    A participle can be used as:

    (i) attributively, i.e. before the noun.
    A burnt child dreads the fire.
    the old man needs a walking stick.
    This is a charming scenery.

    (ii) predictively:
    The old man was tired.
    The scenery is charming.

    (iii) absolutely:
    Supposing this to be true, the Pancha Pandavas went out for finding Droupadi.
    Writing the letter, he posted it.

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