English Grammar Tutorials

  • Preface & Content
  • Letter, Word, Sentence
  • Parts of speech
  • Pronoun
  • Adjective
  • Adverb
  • Articles
  • Number and Gender
  • Person and Case
  • Mood and Modal verbs
  • Tense
  • Clause
  • Voice
  • Narration
  • Punctuation
  • Preposition
  • Conjunction
  • Participles and Gerunds
  • Transformation of sentences
  • Phrasal verb
  • Exercise
  • Correction
  • Simple Conjugate
  • Chapter 14. Punctuation


    “Punctuation is the art of dividing written discourses into sections, by means of points, for the purpose of showing the grammatical connection and dependence, and making the sense more obvious.”

    The most important marks of punctuation are (i) the comma (,), (ii) the semicolon (;), (iii) the colon (:), (iv) the full stop (.), (v) the note of interrogation (?), (vi) note of exclamation (!), (vii) the dash (-), (viii) the inverted comma (“ ”), (ix) the brackets ( ( ) ), (x) apostrophe (’), (xi) hyphen (-).

    Without punctuation or wrong punctuation a passage or ‘writing discourse’ becomes absurd and meaningless.

    14.1 Comma

    The comma is the shortest pause and it is used very frequently.

    (i) Three or more words of the same parts of speech or phrases of similar character should be separated by commas. For example:
    Ram, Shyam, and Jadu went to school.
    He came, saw, and went away.
    Germany, Italy, and Japan formed an alliance.

    (ii) Nouns or pronouns or phrases in apposition are separated by a comma.
    Calcutta, the capital of West Bengal, has been renamed as Kolkata.
    Ramesh, his brother, went to England.

    (iii) Comma is used in between repeated words.
    I will never, never do this again.

    (iv) A comma is used after each pair of words or phrases joined by and.
    The poor and the rich, the weak and the strong, the young and the old, have one Common Father.

    (v) Before and after phrases and clauses used parenthetically:
    Her son was, as it were, the apple of her eye.
    The young man, I am glad to say, has escaped miraculously.

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