B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals

Pharmacology I

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacy study material

Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

Cancer and music therapy

Memory of water

Osteoporosis: Cause, Diagnosis and Treatment

Osteoporosis: Diagnosis


Fractures of vertebrae, proximal femur, and distal radius (with or without moderate to severe back pain), Multiple vertebral fractures may decrease height and curve the spine that is called kyphosis or lordosis.


CBC, liver function tests, Scr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), calcium, phosphorus, albumin, TSH, free testosterone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and 24-hour urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus. Urine or serum biomarkers (eg cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen, osteocalcin).


Measurement of central (hip and spine) bone mineral density (BMD) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and measurement of peripheral sites (forearm, heel, and phalanges) with ultrasound or DXA, T score measurement (BMD at the site, compared to the healthy 20-29-year-old young with same sex).

Reference range for T score

As per WHO, based on a low-trauma fracture or central hip and/or spine DXA, T score for normal is in the range in between 0 to -1. If the T score is in between -1.0 to -2.4, it is called Osteopenia. If T score is more than -2.5, Osteoporosis is defined.

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