B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals

Pharmacology I

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacy study material

Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

Cancer and music therapy

Memory of water

Osteoporosis: Treatment

Therapy for Osteoporosis

Calcium (calcium carbonate, calcium citrate)


adults: 1000-1200 mg, children: 1-3 yrs: 500 mg; 4-8 yrs: 800 mg; 9-13 yrs: 1300 mg, infants: 0-6 months 210 mg; 6-12 months: 270 mg

Mechanism of action

Calcium is essential to increase bone strength.

Adverse drug reactions

Constipation (increased water intake is essential to avoid constipation)

Supplemental vitamin D


D3 (cholecalciferol): adults: 200 units, elderly: 400-600 units, children: 200 units

D2 (ergocalciferol): 50,000 units once weekly or once monthly in vitamin D deficiency depending upon the serum calcium level

1, 25 $(OH)_2$ vitamin D (calcitriol, Rocaltrol po, Calcijex IV): 0.25-0.5 $\mu$g orally or 1-2 $\mu$g/mL intravenously daily for renal osteodystrophy, hypoparathyroidism, and refractory rickets

Mechanism of action

It maximizes the intestinal absorption of calcium and increases BMD.

Adverse drug reactions

Hypercalcemia, hypercalceuria

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