B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals

Pharmacology I

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacy study material

Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

Cancer and music therapy

Memory of water

1.2.5 Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education I Laboratory


Lab 6 Total Leukocyte Count with improved Neubauer's chamber

Developed by Prova Biswas

Principle: The blood specimen is diluted 1:20 in a WBC pipette with the diluting fluid (water: glacial acetic acid: gentian violet = 97:2:1) and the cells are counted under low power of the microscope (10X) by using a counting chamber. The glacial acetic acid lyses the red cells while the gentian violet slightly stains the nuclei of the leukocytes to locate the WBC under microscope.

Theory: White blood cells, present in plasma take part in body defense against invading micro-organisms. They are produced from the pluripotent stem cell in the bone marrow in adults. In case of foetus haemopoiesis occurs in liver and spleen.

Normal ranges:

Table 1. Normal ranges of total leukocyte count:

Table 2. Differential leukocyte count:

Clinical Significances of total leukocyte count: Increase in total leukocyte count of more than 10,000/cu mm (µl) is known as leukocytosis and decrease of less than 4 000 cu mm (µl) as leukopenia.

Causes of leukocytosis: i. it is common for a transient period in infections (bacterial, protozoal (malaria), or parasitic), ii. leukocytosis is also observed in severe hemorrhage and in leukemia ii. high temperature iii. severe pain iv. accidental brain damage.

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