B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals

Pharmacology I

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacy study material

Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

Cancer and music therapy

Memory of water


Bones: Structure and different parts

Bones: It is a complex and dynamic living tissue, composed of osseous tissue, cartilage, dense connective tissue, epithelium, adipose tissue and nervous tissue. Individual bone of the body is considered as an organ. The bones and it's cartilage along with the ligaments and tendons constitute the skeletal system.

Remodelling of bones: The process of continuous formation of new bone tissue and erosion of old bone tissue is called the remodelling of bones.

Macroscopic structure of a long bone


The long and cylindrical parts of bone, which is called the body of bones.


The proximal and distal ends of a long bones.


The region between the diaphyses and epiphyses of a bone that contains the epiphyseal plate (a layer of hyaline cartilage) in the growing stage (18-21 years) of the bones and allows the diaphyses to grow in length. After the growing stage over, it is replaced by the epiphyseal line.

Articular cartilage

The layer of hyaline cartilage between two bones. reduces the friction and absorbs the shock at freely movable joints.


Tough connective tissue sheath which is associated with the blood supply to the bones, where it is not covered by the articular cartilage. This is composed of two layers: the outer fibrous layer and the inner osteogenic layer that is responsible for the growth of the bone in thickness but not in length. Periosteum protects the bones, assists in fracture repair, helps in nourishing the bone tissue and serves as the attachment point for ligaments and tendons.The long and cylindrical parts of bone, which is called the body of bones.

Medullary (marrow) cavity

The hollow, cylindrical space inside the diaphyses that contains yellow bone marrow and minimises the weight of the bone. It also nourishes the bones in adults.


A thick membrane inside the medullary cavity that contains a single layer of bone forming cells and few amounts of connective tissue.

Different parts of a long bone figure

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