B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals

Pharmacology I

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacy study material

General Pharmacology

Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

Cancer and music therapy

Memory of water

Steps of drug development (cont'd...)


Qualitative and quantitative estimation of drug action in vivo is done in bioassay [Rang MP et. al., 2007].

The objectives of the assay are [Rang MP et. al., 2007]:

a. Measurement of the efficacy (maximum effect could be produced by a drug in therapeutic dose) of a new molecule in respect to standard drug

b. Compare the efficacy of two compound in same target

c. Measurement of the effect of a compound in different circumstances (changing the parameters)

d. The potency (minimum amount of the drug required to produce desired therapeutic action is called the potency of a drug) of the drug is measured and compared with conventional drug

e. Evaluation of multiple pharmacological activities of a molecule, depending on it's mechanism of action for known therapeutic use

f. Measurement of the toxicity and adverse drug reactions of a drug.

** The branch of pharmacy, deals with the study of toxicological effects of drug, is called the toxicology [Tripathi KD, 2004]

g. Investigation of the functions of the endogenous mediators

Bioassay can be performed in different levels of biological organization, depending upon the pathogenesis of a disease. Example given in the table, clarifies the statement:


Different biological levels




Tissue and organs

Physiological system

Test samples

Rheumatoid arthritis [Rang MP et. al., 2007]

interleukin-I & tumor necrosis factor-$\alpha$

synovial cells

Bones and joints

skeletal system

mice, rats, human

laboratory, clinical, population and society

Atherosclerosis [Rene RSP and Peter L, 2008]

endothelial adhesion molecules (eg. proteases)

vascular endothelial cells

blood vessels

cardiovascular system

mice, rats, human

laboratory, clinical, population and society

Parkinson's diseases [Tripathi KD, 2004]




Central nervous system

mice, rats, human

laboratory, clinical, population and society

iv. Lead finding

Lead is the new molecule, evaluated for the potential to be used as drug in future. We have proper knowledge about the targets for each disease and the pathology of diseases (etiology, pathogenesis, morphological changes and clinical manifestations). Therefore, we should find out such a molecule, capable of interrupting the pathogenesis of a disease.We should focus on our disease of interest and note down all the targets for that disease.
Example: If we focus on hypertension, we should find out a lead, capable of inhibiting ACE/Ca+ channel/Na+ channel/ $ \ beta $ adrenergic receptor or can act as AT1 receptor antagonist or vasodilator (stimulating K+ channel opening) [Rang MP et. al., 2007].


[Rang MP et. al., 2007] Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter J M, Moore P K, Pharmacology, 5th Edition, Elsevier, 2-752, 2007.
[Tripathi KD, 2004] Tripathi KD, Essential of Medical Pharmacology, 5th Edition, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Limited, 3-123, 2004.
[Rene RSP and Peter L, 2008] Rene RSP and Peter L, Inflammation in Atherosclerosis: From Vascular Biology to Biomarker Discovery and Risk Prediction, Clinical Chemistry, vol. 54, issue 1, 24 -38, 2008.

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