B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals

Pharmacology I

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacy study material

Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

Cancer and music therapy

Memory of water

Gout: Cause, Diagnosis and Treatment(cont'd...)

Mechanism of actions of Chronic anti-Gout agents


Allopurinol and its major metabolite (alloxanthine, oxypurinol), are xanthine oxidase inhibitors and inhibit the conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid. Allopurinol also lowers the intracellular concentration of PRPP.

Uricosuric Drugs

Probenecid and sulfinpyrazone increase the renal clearance of uric acid by inhibiting the renal tubular reabsorption of uric acid.


Recombinant urate oxidase that converts the uric acid into allantoin and then it is eliminated in urine.


Febuxostat is a non-purine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. It works by non-competitively blocking xanthine oxidase, which is needed to successively oxidize both hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid.

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