B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals

Pharmacology I

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacy study material

Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

Cancer and music therapy

Memory of water

3.5.3 Pharmacology I


Lab 9 Determination of anti-oedemic action of a NSAIDs (Aspirin) with the help of Plethysmometer


Inflammation is the protective response of the host cells against the invading pathogens and noxious stimuli, which is characterized by the swelling, redness, pain and increased body temperature. When the foreign substance enters in the body it produces two types of immune responses: innate non adaptive response (immediate response) and adaptive immune response (specific for the invading pathogens). Innate immune response against the infection gives rise to the signs and symptoms of inflammations [Rang et. al., 2007].

When the pathogen or noxious stimuli attack the host cells, the innate adaptive system gets activated immediately. In the first step, the toll receptors (TLRs,present in the dendritic cells/antigen presenting cells and tissue macrophages) recognize the pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMPs, like peptidoglycan, bacterial lipopolysaccharide) and interact with this. Such interaction triggers the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factors $\alpha$ (TNF-$\alpha$) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) followed by the activation of nuclear factor $\kappa\beta$ (NF-$\kappa \beta$) which further produces other inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-4 etc.). NF-$\kappa \beta$ stimulates the production of the prostaglandin H synthase 1 & 2 (i.e. cyclo-oxygenase 1 & 2) [Rang et. al., 2007, Michael & Zheng-gang, 2011].


[Rang et. al., 2007] Rang H P, Dale M M, Ritter J M, Moore P K, Pharmacology, 5th Edition, Elsevier, pp. 217-160, 2007.
[Michael and Zheng-gang, 2011] Michael J M and Zheng-gang L, Crosstalk of reactive oxygen species and NF-$\kappa$B signaling, Cell Research, 21, pp. 103-115, 2011.

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